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Live Aboard Sailboat Powerwall 14s200p
#1
The build will be a long process. I have maybe half the cells I need and only 2 Opus BT-C3100s.

But I won't buy the sailboat till next year and whatever boat is purchased it will need some refitting. There is plenty of time. 

The plan is to convert the boat to a 48v DC motor for motoring around marinas, etc. I have no clue if this powerwall and power generation system will supply enough for all the electrical needs of living aboard and occasionally motoring. Hopefully it's enough but more can always be added. 

Basic Plan
  • Don't die in a lithium fueled ball of fire on the high seas. 
  • Fifteen 200p packs. One for spare. 3000 cells total
  • Each pack enclosed in a plastic or stainless steel container
  • Packs terminate to Anderson plugs or stainless terminal/lugs
  • All cables and busbars will be tinned
  • Batrium BMS with longmons and shunt
  • Power generation from solar panels and wind turbine
  • Power regeneration from the sailboat's DC motor
  • CO2 fire suppression in battery compartment
  • A very tiny backup diesel genset
  • Majority of the boat will run off of a 220v inverter. 
  • Some will be native 48v and the rest will be bucked to 12v

I don't have any photos of the very early stages but here is a photo of 125 fully tested and cleaned cells. Glue, gunk, and tabs removed. All heaters and leakers winnowed. And any cell tested to under 1800mAh set aside for later experiments. 




Just 2875 more cells to go. 




All my cells have come from lenovo laptops backs, from a single company, and from 2012 to 2018. And there is still a huge variety of cells types. One type of pack is guaranteed tough to open and a few cell wrappers get damaged in each pack. Here is my first cell resleeving.
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#2
"Don't die in a lithium fueled ball of fire on the high seas. "

GOOOD PLAN! lol

Good luck with your project!
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#3
In the battery compartment, you might think about putting Halon fire suppression. It'll help pull the O2 out of the air and make the sparks less explosive. It won't "stop" them if they go bad, but it'll definitely put a damper on them.
FYI, lithium cells carry oxygen in their electrolyte. So once they start burning, they are kinda hard to stop as they supply their own O2.

That's a lot of orange cells. Is that the majority of your haul? That's interesting if so. I've not actually had that large of a bias of 1 color over another (yet).
Proceed with caution. Knowledge is Power! Literally! Cool 
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#4
Awesome plan. Looking forward to progress updates.

Since it's in a moving vehicle, I think Terminal lugs would maintain a more solid connection under stress. Slightly more effort for. Maintenance though.

Good luck!
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#5
Any suggestions on fire suppression are welcomed. My only experience with it has been in data centers on a huge scale. The idea I'm currently pondering came from a previous question thread I posted. 

The idea:
Tank(s)+hose filled with some form of fire suppressant and the hose will go through each 200p pack. If a situation occurs where neither the cell level fuses nor the longmon prevent a runaway temperature issue the hose melts releasing suppressant as needed. 



I was just modeling up a pack today and thinking about the suppressant hose and longmon placement. 



 A 21 x 10 cell holder system with the center 10 left empty for hose and longmon. 

Or maybe a 20 x 11 cell holder with the center 20 left empty. A bit weaker structurally and creates a larger pack. But allows for more hose in the pack and easier hose routing. I plan to have the bus bars along one of the long sides with the bus bar pair being the top of the pack.  

I've put very little thought into how the hoses will pierce the packs.



(09-06-2018, 12:19 PM)Korishan Wrote: That's a lot of orange cells. Is that the majority of your haul? That's interesting if so. I've not actually had that large of a bias of 1 color over another (yet).

There is indeed heaps of orange cells. Maybe 60% have been orange. But it's two types of cells, one being a slightly darker orange.
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#6
(09-06-2018, 12:57 PM)Truth Wrote: There is indeed heaps of orange cells. Maybe 60% have been orange. But it's two types of cells, one being a slightly darker orange.

Well, orange you glad they aren't all orange? Tongue

Nice idea for running the hose through the packs. Pretty slick. The path may be an issue, as you're find out. But I'm you'll figure something out. I like the hose idea. A very simple setup that is almost failsafe and doesn't require any external power, sensors, or processing that might go nuts.
Proceed with caution. Knowledge is Power! Literally! Cool 
Knowledge is Power; Absolute Knowledge is Absolutely Shocking!
Certified 18650 Cell Reclamation Technician

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#7
Have you considered using a Tesla module? It's built quite solid and they are built with a thermal cooling that when used will minimize the thermal damage. The most important thing is that a cell like Korishan said self oxidixes so there's no way to put the fire out other than let it run its course. The danger is setting off a chain reaction if you don't have a way to mitigate the thermal runaway situation.

I could have sworn there was a youtube video of the Tesla Powerpack, but here's an article describing the test they did with a Powerpack.

https://electrek.co/2016/12/19/tesla-fir...st-safety/
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#8
The CO2 venting near the hot spot will also provide a lot of cold air at the same time. Some of the separate pipes are setup so that they contain the liquid CO2 (cylinder is mounted upside down) and then they vent liquid CO2 out very quick for a very fast freeze and CO2 dispersal. Depends on the model.
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#9
(09-07-2018, 09:33 PM)not2bme Wrote: Have you considered using a Tesla module?

I would love to use Tesla packs. Or any EV pack at all, but they are not easy to acquire in Australia. 





Making slow progress. I've fully tested slightly over 400 cells. Once I have 1400 I plan to distribute them evenly and build an initial 24v setup. 

But before that I plan to practice design, spot welding, etc with the subpar cells. I've estimated my failure rate to be about 15% of the cells don't pass the full testing.
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#10
Finally unboxed the spot welder and practiced building a small pack. They're all junk sells, 1100 - 1400mAh in 1sp20. The design didn't matter I just wanted to try different variations of spot welding and soldering nickel strip and fuse wire. Lots of sparks and holes blown into stuff as I dialed in the settings. The side shown below is the better side and I'll continue practicing with junk cells as they gather.

I picked up some 0.21mm diameter wire for the fuses. I've can't test the wire thoroughly as seen in some videos but after building the small pack I used it to blow various lengths of wire soldered and welded in various configurations. The results seemed decent. 



A little side hobby has arose since I have plentiful pure nickel floating around. I've started nickel plating small parts of other projects. The first platings went poorly but I recently picked up some evapo-rust and acid to better clean the parts and I hope future platings will go better. Below is the nickel acetate solution made with vinegar. 

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